English has a couple of other phrases that may mean “have,” like possess, personal or stay.
Jap is identical means, with a couple of other phrases that may mean moderately various things in numerous contexts.
On this article, we’ll take a look at Jap phrases you’ll be able to use to mean “have.”
How do you are saying “have” in Jap?
The phrase “have” is used to display possession or categorical that one thing is shut to hand. In Jap, you’ll be able to categorical this with a number of phrases, together with ある (aru) or いる (iru) and 持つ (motsu).
ある is a verb that generally method “exists” when referring to inanimate items. It will also be utilized in contexts identical to the English verb “to have.” It will have to be implemented to the item of a sentence with the particle が to have this meaning, reasonably than to the subject with the particle は.
The verb 持つ, steadily used to mean “raise” or “grasp,” is any other phrase that can be utilized in the similar contexts as English “have.” For this verb, you will have to use the item particle を.
There also are some phrases to be utilized in particular contexts, just like the verb 飼う (kau) used to refer to puppy possession. Generally, on the other hand, ある or 持つ gets the process executed.
The meanings of “to have”
Even in English, the phrase “to have” can raise a number of other meanings.
First, it may be used to display possession of one thing, comparable to within the sentence “I’ve a automotive.”
It will also be used, on the other hand, to merely display the life of one thing, as in “The pond has a fish in it” or “This town has against the law downside.”
Jap has a number of other phrases which can be utilized in scenarios the place you might use “have” in English, and those even have moderately other meanings in numerous contexts.
ある (aru) or いる (iru) for “to have”
The primary phrases we’ll evaluation are ある (aru) and いる (iru), either one of which might be used to display that one thing exists.
ある is technically the phrase for to “to be” when speaking about inanimate items, whilst いる is for residing issues. On the other hand, each those phrases will also be used to mean “have” in some contexts.
The way in which to inform those two meanings aside is most commonly context, however the verb’s position in a sentence too can assist.
If ある or いる is hooked up to the sentence’s subject with the subject particle は, it simply method “to exist.”
If, alternatively, the verb is connected to the item of the sentence with the particle が, it may once in a while be translated as “have.”
That isn’t at all times the case, on the other hand, and even if following が those two verbs can once in a while be higher translated as “is” or “exists.”
The cause of that is mainly that Jap is built otherwise than English. Technically, the true meaning of each those verb continues to be nearer to “exist.”
All of the similar, it once in a while makes extra sense to translate them as “to have” within the context of a given sentence.
If you happen to’re attempting to translate this into English and also you’re now not certain which is best, use your best judgement.
If, alternatively, you want to use them in Jap, you’ll be able to achieve this with out being worried about their technical or literal translation.
Simply make certain that the context of the sentence is such that your meaning is known.
As a temporary apart, whilst ある technically has kanji (有る) the phrase is generally simply written in hiragana.
A extra literal translation could be “As for Maria, [there is] a large downside.”
That’s very awkward, even though, so it’s more practical to use the similarly correct translation of “Maria has a large downside.”
Be aware that we will be able to’t translate this as “Maria is a huge downside.”
Initially, the item is 大問題 (a large downside), as indicated via the が that follows it, and Maria is the topic, as indicated via は.
2nd of all, Maria is an individual and would take いる, reasonably than ある, as an issue.
If we needed to state how problematic Maria is, you might merely use the copula and say 「マリアは大問題です。」
“I’ve a minimize on my arm.”
Right here, the topic of 私は is implied. Atmosphere apart the literal translation of “As for me, a minimize exists on my arm,” it is sensible to translate this the usage of “have.”
“That park has greater than 100 squirrels!”
Once more, shall we additionally translate this to “There are greater than 100 squirrels in that park!”
Squirrels live beings, so we want to use いる reasonably than ある regardless of which translation we make a choice.
持つ (motsu): To have and to grasp
The verb 持つ (motsu) generally method “to grasp” or “to raise,” however like いる and ある it may additionally mean “to have.”
持つ is a transitive verb, meaning it calls for an immediate object.
That implies it has to be hooked up to its object with the item particle を.
That is any other case the place context will have an effect on translations into English, however in the event you’re simply attempting to talk Jap you don’t want to fear overly a lot about whether or not you’re asking any individual in the event that they “have” one thing or in the event that they’re “protecting” it.
As well as to precise bodily items, 持つ can be utilized to discuss evaluations, pursuits and emotions as neatly.
In those instances, you’ll be able to choose from 持つ or ある, however take into account that the grammar within the sentence wishes to fit the verb you select.
Once more, the English translation doesn’t have an effect on the true meaning in Jap.
This may be mentioned as 「私は俳句に興味がある。」 or “I’ve an pastime in haiku.”
Simply make certain the grammar fits.
Speaking about pets with 飼う (kau)
Not like 持つ or いる/ある, 飼う is an excessively specialised verb.
It’s best ever used to refer to pets or different animals that you will have.
Like 持つ, 飼う is a transitive verb, and will have to be hooked up to its direct object with the item particle を.
It’s worth noting that you simply don’t have to use 飼う to discuss puppy possession.
You too can describe an individual’s dating to their puppy in some way that makes いる extra suitable.
If you happen to do use this phrase for “to have,” even though, it’s vital to take into account that it isn’t a translation for that phrase in all instances the place you’d use the English phrase.
If you happen to use 飼う to say “I’ve a headache,” you’re going to get some beautiful ordinary responses, simply as you might when announcing “I’m elevating a headache” or “that is my puppy headache” in English.
Within the latter case, you’ll want to additionally say 「友人の家に猫が三匹います。」
Whilst this actually says “There are 3 cats at my buddy’s area,” it’s necessarily the similar as announcing “My buddy has 3 cats.”
As with 持つ vs ある, the grammar of this alternative sentence follows the grammar laws for いる, now not the foundations for 飼う.
Different “to have” phrases
There are many different choices for “to have,” a lot of that have particular contexts or are merely difficult to understand.
Listed here are only a few:
占領 (senryou) – To have a space or area to your self. Additionally the phrase for an army career.
抱える (kakaeru) – To have issues or money owed. This phrase too can mean “raise for your fingers” or “make use of,” so it’s identical to announcing “have so much to your shoulders” metaphorically, which is why it’s generally used for detrimental issues.
含む (fukumu) – To include or have inside of. If you happen to’re protecting one thing for your mouth or harboring a grudge, you’ll be able to additionally use this phrase.
摂る (toru) – To have a meal or take nutrients. (For different kinds of drugs, use the phrase for “to drink,” 飲む or nomu.)
有する (yuu suru) – To have or possess.
要する (you suru) – To have or possess.
抱く (idaku) – Extensively utilized for “to include,” this verb can be utilized to categorical having a concept or feeling.
兼ね備える (kanesonaeru) – This compound transitive verb method to have two particular issues on the similar time.
In maximum, if now not all, instances, on the other hand, you’re most probably sticking to probably the most 3 phrases described at duration previous on this article.
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