One of many predominant indicators that somebody has mastered a language is that they perceive how to use the morphology of stated language fairly effectively. When you don’t know what morphemes are, they’re the tiniest, significant unit in a language.
Frequent morphemes in English embrace “-ing,” “in,” and “-tion.”
You utilize morphemes on a regular basis with out even realizing it. As an illustration, each time you’ve used a suffix or a prefix to change the meaning of a phrase or to rework an adjective right into a noun, you have been utilizing morphemes.
In spite of everything, suffixes and prefixes are simply various kinds of morphemes that we affix both on the finish or in the beginning of a phrase.
Listed below are a couple of examples in motion.
The reverse of sincerity is insincerity, and the antonym of discretion is indiscretion.
Alternatively, whereas attentive is an adjective, attentiveness is the noun we get once we add the suffix “-ness” on the finish.
Equally, inflexible could also be an adjective, however rigidity is the noun you get from putting “-ity” on the finish.
The cause it takes time to grasp using morphemes is that issues aren’t all the time clear reduce.
It’s a bit arbitrary that we determined to use the suffix “-ness” with the adjective “attentive” whereas utilizing the suffix “-ity” with “inflexible” even although our goal in each circumstances was to rework an adjective right into a noun.
It takes a short while for us to be taught which morphemes go along with which phrases.
And, funnily sufficient, even when you develop into fluent in a language, there’ll nonetheless be fringe circumstances the place you might be not sure of which morpheme to use.
As an illustration, take a look at the adjective “real.” If we needed to flip it right into a noun, ought to we use the suffix “-ness,” giving us “genuineness,” or ought to we use the suffix “-ity” to produce the phrase “genuinity”? Or, is there a 3rd choice we aren’t contemplating, equivalent to “genuity”?
Is it “genuinity,” “genuineness,” and even “genuity”?
The brief reply is that you need to use “genuineness.” That’s the noun agreed to by dictionaries, and it’s the one most individuals use in the present day. Nonetheless, “genuineness” could appear a bit cumbersome to say, and much more so when it comes to writing.
And, does that mean “genuinity” and “genuity” are utterly mistaken?
Not precisely. Let’s proceed on to discover out why.
How come there isn’t a clear reduce reply?
First off, let’s dispel the notion that language has arduous, clear guidelines like these of arithmetic or physics. As a substitute, the foundations of language are versatile and all the time altering.
In truth, what offers any linguistic rule legitimacy isn’t one thing summary or ethereal. There aren’t any platonic beliefs when it comes to language.
Quite, linguistic guidelines get their legitimacy from the settlement of the bulk.
In different phrases, a rule is barely a rule as a result of we, the customers of the language in query, collectively agree to make it so.
That is why totally different dialects might have totally different guidelines, but nobody can declare that one dialect is extra appropriate than the opposite.
All these totally different dialects are simply totally different agreements made amongst totally different communities.
And, when a neighborhood collectively agrees to change a sure rule, then that rule successfully adjustments. That’s how language evolves, and that’s how new phrases make into a brand new language whereas previous ones fade into oblivion.
In spite of everything, when was the final time you heard somebody use the phrases “thou” and “thrice” in the identical sentence? (Clearly, if you’re a fan of Shakespearean performs, then you’ve gotten most likely heard these phrases earlier than, however that’s a unique case.)
So, when figuring out which noun of the three, “genuineness,” “genuinity,” or “genuity,” is the one we should always use, our best recourse is to take a look at which one the bulk agree on.
In spite of everything, language is among the few areas the place conformity issues.
To that finish, we’ll discover that “genuineness” is the one that almost all use. You will discover it in most dictionaries, and those self same dictionaries might not even notice the opposite two choices.
Nonetheless, in case you have been to take a look at the City dictionary, for example, you’ll find the phrase “genuinity” there, and it’s outlined as “the measure of how real one thing is.”
So, you shouldn’t rule it out altogether, and also you shouldn’t be shocked in case you come throughout it.
“Genuinity” vs.“genuineness” vs.“genuity”: What Google says
To drive the purpose residence, let’s see what Google has to say. Google provides web customers a really useful device referred to as “Google Books Ngram Viewer.”
Principally, this device allows you to see the proportion of occasions a sure phrase is utilized in all the books scanned and digitized by Google.
As an illustration, once we search for the phrases “hi there” and “the,” we discover that “hi there” is used lower than 0.00047 p.c of the time whereas “the” is used greater than 4 p.c of the time.
Because of this writers use the phrase “the” round 10,000 occasions greater than they use the phrase “hi there. This could come as no shock.
Now, let’s use this highly effective device to take a look at the phrases “genuineness,” “genuinity,” and “genuity.”
Ranging from the 1800s, each “genuineness” “genuity” have been in use.
Nonetheless, whereas “genuity” was used lower than 0.00000884 p.c of the time, “genuineness” was used round 0.00015 p.c out of all documented phrases. Because of this “genuineness” was used round 17 occasions greater than “genuity.”
Throughout that point, there isn’t a file of the phrase “genuinity.” In truth, the phrase “genuinity” doesn’t make an look till the center of the nineteenth century, across the starting of the 1860s.
If we transfer ahead a few centuries to arrive at present day, we’ll discover that every one three phrases are in use, however the ratios are means out of wack.
For starters, “genuineness” is used round 0.0000563 p.c of the time, which represents a substantial drop from the place it was in the beginning of the nineteenth century.
Curiously, the phrase “genuity” has additionally dropped in utilization, racking up round 0.0000000769 p.c. (that’s a decimal level adopted by seven zeroes for these of you too lazy to rely.) As for “genuinity,” its utilization quantities to 0.0000001777 p.c.
Now, there are some things to discover right here. Initially, “genuinity” has surpassed “genuity” in recognition and by greater than an element of two. That is appreciable since nobody was utilizing “genuinity” simply a few centuries in the past.
The different factor to discover is that “genuineness” remains to be within the clear lead. It’s used greater than 300 occasions than “genuinity” and greater than 730 occasions than “genuity.”
Ergo, with these numbers, it ought to be clear why you need to use “genuineness.” But, simply as “genuinity” surpassed “genuity” over time, it’d very effectively develop into the case that “genuinity” will surpass “genuineness” in recognition over the subsequent century or so.
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