Changes in the body of a woman during pregnancy varies from person to person. During pregnancy, the cardiovascular system works more intensely, since an additional circle of blood circulation appears in the body – the placental. Pretty quickly, the heart adapts to new loads, the heart muscle mass and cardiac output of blood increase. Due to this, the blood volume in the woman’s body increases, reaching a maximum by the seventh month of pregnancy. The lung activity of a pregnant woman also increases with their capacity, which occurs due to the expansion of the chest and bronchi. Blood pressure during normal pregnancy does not change but may increase in the last trimester. High blood pressure is one of the signs of late toxicosis.
In the ovaries with the onset of pregnancy, ovulation and cyclic processes cease. At the same time, the corpus luteum functions in one of the ovaries – a special endocrine organ that prepares the uterine inner mucosa for embryo reception and ensures the development of pregnancy in the first 10–12 weeks. Then it gradually regresses, and its functions are transferred to the placental complex. During pregnancy, the kidneys work with a very high voltage, since they must excrete the products of metabolism from both the pregnant woman and her growing fetus. At the same time, under the influence of progesterone, the bladder tone decreases, which can lead to the formation of stagnant urine, and this, in turn, promotes the drift of infection into the urinary tract. In addition, a pregnant uterus, increasing in size, may cause difficulty in the outflow of urine from the right kidney.
Many women in the first trimester of pregnancy have changes in the digestive organs: nausea and often vomiting in the morning, taste changes, with the result that pregnant women can enjoy strange combinations of foods, even cravings for unusual substances (chalk, clay) can appear. As a rule, these phenomena take place in the second trimester. The intestine and stomach are moved up by the pregnant uterus upwards, which can cause heartburn, which can be treated with antacids after consultation with a doctor. During pregnancy, many women have the so-called duck gait, which is associated with a softening of the pelvic joints and a small divergence of the pubic bones.
During pregnancy, the mammary glands prepare for the upcoming feeding: the adipose tissue increases in them, the number of lobules, the blood supply improves as a result Breast Expansion occurs during the pregnancy. The glands themselves increase in size. The greatest changes in a woman’s body during pregnancy occur in the genitals: the uterus increases in size, reaching 35 cm instead of 3–8 cm by the end of pregnancy, its weight increases from 50–100 g to 1000–1200 g (without fetus weight); the blood vessels dilate and “entangle” the uterus; with a change in the size of the uterus, its position also changes, and by the end of the first trimester it goes beyond the limits of the pelvis, and reaches the hypochondrium by birth. Fetal growth and the occurring physiological changes in the body of a pregnant woman naturally affect the weight of her body, which increases from 8 to 18 kg. The weekly weight gain is always monitored by the attending gynecologist. Of course, in a pregnant woman, in addition to physiological changes, psychological ones also occur. In the first two trimesters, women are mostly concerned with their own condition, and when the fetus begins to move, the woman’s attention is drawn to it. She can talk with her future child, give him affectionate nicknames and endow him with individual features. In addition, pregnant women may experience various fears and fears associated with changes in appearance, seeming loss of attractiveness and relationships with loved ones. In case of increased anxiety or tendency to depressive state, a woman is recommended to consult a specialist.
Antibiotics during pregnancy
Pregnant women, unfortunately, are also not immune from disease. Usually, doctors try not to prescribe antibiotics during pregnancy, but there are times when you cannot do without them. When antibiotics can not be avoided? What antibiotics are possible during pregnancy and at what dosage? When can I get pregnant after antibiotics, if during the planning I had to undergo treatment? Do antibiotics affect pregnancy? What are the side effects for a pregnant woman and the consequences for the fetus as a result of taking antibiotics?
Antibiotics are drugs that kill bacteria and microbes.
Antibiotic treatment during pregnancy is usually tried to be postponed, since many of them cross the placenta and can affect the development of the fetus. But if a pregnant woman has sore throat or pneumonia, diseases of the urinary tract, or bacterial complications in the presence of a viral infection or flu, taking antibiotics during pregnancy cannot be avoided. A doctor must necessarily select a drug for treatment, taking into account the duration of pregnancy, the severity of the disease, which antibiotics can be drunk during pregnancy, and to which drugs the bacteria found in the body will be sensitive.
Sensitivity to antibiotics during pregnancy
broad-spectrum antibiotics that suppress various groups of microbes;
antibiotics that act only on certain types of bacteria. Pregnancy is not the time to experiment and choose a drug at random. During pregnancy, you can take antibiotics, if using the tests revealed the causative agent of the disease and determined its sensitivity to specific drugs. If there is no possibility to conduct a study for any reason, and the treatment should be started, the doctor will determine which antibiotic to choose during pregnancy – most likely it will be a broad-spectrum antibiotic.
Some pregnant women think that the effect of antibiotics on pregnancy can be reduced by reducing the dose of the drug. But the dose of antibiotic for a pregnant and non-pregnant woman is the same. It is designed to suppress the proliferation of bacteria. Independently reducing the dose, you do not defeat the pathogen, but only “teach” it to the drug. The treatment will have to be repeated, moreover, by choosing a different antibiotic.
Antibiotics approved during pregnancy
There are so-called safe antibiotics during pregnancy – drugs, the negative impact of which on the fetus has not been identified:
penicillin antibiotics (Amoxicillin, Oxacillin, Ampicillin);
cephalosporins (Cefazolin, Cefatoxime);
macrolides (erythromycin, azithromycin).
Antibiotics used during pregnancy, in the future can be assigned to a woman and during breastfeeding. They are also suitable for babies of the first year of life.
Use of antibiotics during pregnancy
It is undesirable to take antibiotics at the beginning of pregnancy when the formation and formation of internal organs and systems take place, and in the 2nd and 3rd trimester and during breastfeeding, taking antibiotics is possible, if there is a need for the mother. It should be remembered that it is advisable to drink antibiotics during pregnancy only if the disease is not viral, but of a bacterial nature, and this is confirmed by tests.
How do antibiotics affect pregnancy?
It is believed that antibiotics can cause genetic abnormalities and cause birth defects in the fetus, but modern studies show that this is not the case. However, some antibiotics at an early stage of pregnancy can indeed have a toxic effect on the embryo and cause hearing and visual impairment or affect the internal organs of the fetus.
Antibiotics and pregnancy planning
If a woman or her partner has been ill and has taken antibiotics and other medications, doctors advise you to postpone pregnancy planning after antibiotics for 3 months. During this time, the drugs will be completely removed from the body, the partners’ health will be restored, the immunity will get stronger and pregnancy after antibiotics will proceed easily and without any problems. But if planning pregnancy after taking antibiotics could not be postponed, it is necessary to consult with a geneticist: some types of antibiotics may affect the conception and the formation of the fetus.
Antibiotics in early pregnancy
In the first trimester of pregnancy, antibiotics are undesirable, since during this period the main systems of the fetus are formed. But many future mothers take antibiotics in the first weeks of pregnancy simply because they still do not know about their situation, and then worry about it, is it possible to save the pregnancy? In the first two weeks the embryo is not associated with the blood of the mother, so if you drank a course of antibiotics without knowing about the pregnancy, there are no threats to the fetus. If it becomes necessary to drink antibiotics during pregnancy, 1 trimester is not the best time. If there is a possibility, the treatment is postponed. For example, urogenital infections detected during registration during pregnancy, begin to heal after the 20th week. If treatment is urgently needed, the least toxic drugs are selected.
Antibiotics during pregnancy 2 trimester
During the 2nd and 3rd trimester, the laying of the internal organs and systems of the fetus has already occurred, so the list of antibiotics that can be used is significantly expanded. During this period, it is desirable to treat the identified infections so that they do not harm the child.
Method of breathing during childbirth
Breathing is an unconditioned reflex, and in the normal state, each of us breathes without thinking about it. But during childbirth, due to severe pain and muscular tension, a woman often “forgets” to breathe in deeply and slowly exhale the air. The technique of proper breathing during childbirth is to control inhaling and exhaling. At different stages of labor, a woman must breathe differently, but always – controlling the number and duration of inhalation and exhalation. The breathing technique during labor is based on the fact that the diaphragm helps to breathe, and does not complicate the process. There are different breathing techniques during childbirth, videos and descriptions of these techniques will allow a pregnant woman to prepare for the process of childbearing, practice the proper breathing skills in advance and bring them to automatism. After all, if a woman began giving birth, breathing and behavior, the videos of which she watched, she would need to repeat automatically.
Breath at birth: contractions
If the contractions are already regular and the pain intensifies, the most important thing is not to strain or shout, this prevents the opening of the cervix. When childbirth goes, the breath and behavior of the woman in labor helps the baby to move along the birth canal and allows the process of delivery to pass as quickly as possible and without any other stimulation. No matter how much you want to curl up on the bed and moan, you need to get up and try to move and breathe correctly – you will see, it will be much easier to endure contractions. When preparing for childbirth, breathing should be measured. While the contractions are not so strong, it is necessary to inhale air slowly (on four counts) and exhale even more slowly (counting up to six). Breathing, in which the breath is longer than the expiration, allows you to calm down and relax.
When contractions become intense, it is already impossible to breathe measuredly. In this case, it is necessary to use dog-like breathing. During childbirth, this technique allows you to endure the strongest fights without unnecessary stress. Canine breathing is frequent, shallow breathing with an open mouth. You need to start breathing like a dog when the fight is just beginning. The more intense the fight, the more often you have to breathe. At the end of the contraction, when the pain subsides, it is necessary to take a deep breath and a smooth long exhalation. To learn to breathe during childbirth, video lessons and breathing techniques must be studied in advance and be trained several times in their application at home.
Breath during childbirth:
The midwife usually controls the breathing and behavior of the parturient woman during the attempts: she tells you when and how to push and when you need to “breathe through” the trying. If we talk about general principles, then breathing during the attempts is as follows: deep breath in with the nose and exhalation with the mouth, sharp, directed at the uterus and pushing the child, and not into the head. If you enter childbirth, the correct breathing, the video of which you watched during pregnancy, should emerge before your eyes. With the beginning of the fight, relax as much as possible, take a deep breath and slowly exhale, if necessary, breathe the “dog”. Rehearse proper breathing in advance – this will greatly facilitate the process of childbirth.
During pregnancy there are a lot of changes occurring in the face as well such as the effect on High Cheekbones and blood circulatory system of the face.